by Julia Koprak
It all started in the 1880s, when groups of students at Princeton University football games would chant, "Rah, rah, rah! Tiger! Tiger! Tiger! Sis, sis, sis! Boom, boom, boom, aah!" to encourage team support and school spirit. The actual term "cheerleader" was initiated a few years later in 1898, when Johnny Campbell of the University of Minnesota _(1)_ a crowd of students in an organized chant. Cheerleading quickly became a popular activity, with well-known figures such as _(2)_ American presidents Franklin D.
Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower joining in the fun. Indeed, the first cheerleaders were male, and in fact, women only started to get seriously involved _(3)_ cheerleading during the mid-20th century.
Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, the founder of the National Cheerleader's Association, can be credited with transforming cheerleading _(4)_ the sport it is today. In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women _(5)_ in cheerleading. He also created cheerleader uniforms as well as popularized the use of pom-poms. The trend spread to American high schools and in 1978, the first cheerleading competitions _(6)_. Now there are over 3.5 million cheerleaders in the world.
Interestingly _(7)_, in today's world of cheerleading, actual chants are few and far between. The routines more often include dance, gymnastics, pyramid building, and basket tosses. Watching a well-trained cheerleading squad _(8)_ is quite mesmerizing. People are _(9)_ and fly through the air, while others do backflips below. This requires lots of motivation and hard work. During competitions, one small mistake will force judges to deduct points, or _(10)_ worse, lead to serious injury. With complicated dance steps and acrobatics, cheerleading has emerged as a professional sport of its own that extends beyond the sidelines.
(A) even (B) in (C) took place (D) interested (E) perform
(F) led (G) enough (H) former (I) into (J) tossed up
1. ...when Johnny Campbell of the University of Minnesota led a crowd of students in an organized chant.
b. 選項中符合上述條件的選項有下列：(D) interested（使有興趣）、(F) led（帶領）和 (J) tossed up（將……向上拋），由於空格後的受詞為 a crowd of students（一群學生），得知應置入 (F) led 方符合語意，故選之。
2. ...well-known figures such as former American presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower joining in the fun.
a. 空格後為名詞 American presidents（美國總統），得知本空格應置入形容詞加以修飾。
b. 選項中可作形容詞的有 (A) even （平坦的）、(D) interested（感興趣的）、(G) enough（足夠的）和 (H) former（前任的）。
c. 根據語意，應置入 (H) former，表『前美國總統』，故選之。
3. ...women only started to get seriously involved in cheerleading during the mid-20th century.
get/be involved in... 參與∕從事……
例: Do you know how I can get involved in working with that charity?
b. 根據上述用法，故選 (B) in。
4. Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer...can be credited with transforming cheerleading into the sport it is today.
transform A into B 將 A 轉變成 B
凡表『將……變成……』介詞均用 into 來表示，如：change...into...、turn...into... 等。
例: It is my goal to transform the old warehouse into a studio.
b. 空格前有 transforming 及受詞 cheerleading，可知空格應置入介詞 into，故選 (I)。
5. In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women interested in cheerleading.
b. 由空格後的介詞片語 in cheerleading 可知，此處應選填 interested（感興趣的），以形成下列固定用法：
be interested in... 對……有興趣
例: My younger brother is interested in collecting stamps.
In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women who were interested in cheerleading.
d. 根據上述，故選 (D)。
6. ...in 1978, the first cheerleading competitions took place.
b. 選項中，僅 (C) took place（發生；舉行）為過去式不及物動詞片語。而且本句主詞為 competitions （比賽），took place 置入後語意通順，故選之。
c. take place （事件）發生；舉行
例: Because I overslept, I missed the speech contest that took place this morning.
7. Interestingly enough, in today's world of cheerleading, actual chants are few and far between.
a. 句首為副詞 Interestingly（有趣地），得知空格應置入可作後位修飾的副詞加以修飾。
b. 選項中僅 (G) enough（足夠地）可置於形容詞或副詞之後作後位修飾，故為正選。
例: Oddly enough, he hasn't slept for three days, yet he doesn't feel tired at all.
8. Watching a well-trained cheerleading squad perform is quite mesmerizing.
表『看』（watch, see, look at）、『聽』（hear, listen to）與『感覺』（feel）的知覺動詞加受詞後，可接原形動詞作受詞補語，以強調該動作；亦可接現在分詞，強調動作正在進行中。
b. 根據上述，由受詞 a well-trained cheerleading squad（訓練有素的啦啦隊）可知，本空格應選 (E) perform（表演）。
9. People are tossed up and fly through the air, while others do backflips below.
a. 空格前有 be 動詞 are，得知應置入現在分詞或過去分詞，以形成進行式或被動式。
b. 選項中僅剩 (J) tossed up（向上拋）為過去分詞，置入後亦符合語意，故為正選。
c. be tossed up 被向上拋
toss up... 將……向上拋
例: We tossed up a coin to decide which team would get the ball first.
10. ...one small mistake will force judges to deduct points, or even worse, lead to serious injury.
a. 由其後的比較級形容詞 worse 得知，本空格測試修飾比較級形容詞或副詞的詞類，計有下列六個：
far, much, even, still, a lot, a great deal。
例: I found a NT$100 bill. What's even better, I played the lottery with it and won NT$100,000.
b. 根據上述，故選 (A) even。