Something to Cheer About  活力奔放啦啦隊原來如此
精解字詞片語單字小舖
片語小舖





































 



Something to Cheer About  活力奔放啦啦隊








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by Julia Koprak

It all started in the 1880s, when groups of students at Princeton University football games would chant, "Rah, rah, rah! Tiger! Tiger! Tiger! Sis, sis, sis! Boom, boom, boom, aah!" to encourage team support and school spirit. The actual term "cheerleader" was initiated a few years later in 1898, when Johnny Campbell of the University of Minnesota
_(1)_ a crowd of students in an organized chant. Cheerleading quickly became a popular activity, with well-known figures such as _(2)_ American presidents Franklin D.
Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower joining in the fun. Indeed, the first cheerleaders were male, and in fact, women only started to get seriously involved
_(3)_ cheerleading during the mid-20th century.
Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, the founder of the National Cheerleader's Association, can be credited with transforming cheerleading
_(4)_ the sport it is today. In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women _(5)_ in cheerleading. He also created cheerleader uniforms as well as popularized the use of pom-poms. The trend spread to American high schools and in 1978, the first cheerleading competitions _(6)_. Now there are over 3.5 million cheerleaders in the world.

Interestingly
_(7)_, in today's world of cheerleading, actual chants are few and far between. The routines more often include dance, gymnastics, pyramid building, and basket tosses. Watching a well-trained cheerleading squad _(8)_ is quite mesmerizing. People are _(9)_ and fly through the air, while others do backflips below. This requires lots of motivation and hard work. During competitions, one small mistake will force judges to deduct points, or _(10)_ worse, lead to serious injury. With complicated dance steps and acrobatics, cheerleading has emerged as a professional sport of its own that extends beyond the sidelines.

(A) even (B) in (C) took place (D) interested (E) perform
(F) led (G) enough (H) former (I) into (J) tossed up


 
 



 
 



原來如此









1. ...when Johnny Campbell of the University of Minnesota led a crowd of students in an organized chant.
理由:
a. 本句尚缺動詞,根據時態,應置入一過去式及物動詞或片語動詞。
b. 選項中符合上述條件的選項有下列:(D) interested(使有興趣)、(F) led(帶領)和 (J) tossed up(將……向上拋),由於空格後的受詞為 a crowd of students(一群學生),得知應置入 (F) led 方符合語意,故選之。


2. ...well-known figures such as former American presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower joining in the fun.
理由:
a. 空格後為名詞 American presidents(美國總統),得知本空格應置入形容詞加以修飾。
b. 選項中可作形容詞的有 (A) even (平坦的)、(D) interested(感興趣的)、(G) enough(足夠的)和 (H) former(前任的)。
c. 根據語意,應置入 (H) former,表『前美國總統』,故選之。


3. ...women only started to get seriously involved in cheerleading during the mid-20th century.
理由:
a. 本句測試下列固定片語:
get/be involved in...  參與∕從事……
例: Do you know how I can get involved in working with that charity?
(你知不知道我要如何參與那個慈善機構的活動?)
b. 根據上述用法,故選 (B) in。


4. Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer...can be credited with transforming cheerleading into the sport it is today.
理由:
a. 本空格測試下列固定用法:
transform A into B  將 A 轉變成 B
注意:
凡表『將……變成……』介詞均用 into 來表示,如:change...into...、turn...into... 等。
例: It is my goal to transform the old warehouse into a studio.
(我的目標是將這棟舊倉庫改建成工作室。)
b. 空格前有 transforming 及受詞 cheerleading,可知空格應置入介詞 into,故選 (I)。


5. In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women interested in cheerleading.
理由:
a. 本句為一完整句構,可知空格應置入現在分詞或過去分詞,作形容詞用,修飾空格前的名詞(先行詞)women。
b. 由空格後的介詞片語 in cheerleading 可知,此處應選填 interested(感興趣的),以形成下列固定用法:
be interested in...  對……有興趣
例: My younger brother is interested in collecting stamps.
(我弟弟對集郵有興趣。)
c. 本句原為:
In 1948, he held a camp for 52 young women who were interested in cheerleading.
d. 根據上述,故選 (D)。


6. ...in 1978, the first cheerleading competitions took place.
理由:
a. 本句尚缺動詞,根據時態,應置入一過去式動詞或動詞片語,且由於空格後沒有受詞,得知該動詞應為不及物動詞。
b. 選項中,僅 (C) took place(發生;舉行)為過去式不及物動詞片語。而且本句主詞為 competitions (比賽),took place 置入後語意通順,故選之。
c. take place  (事件)發生;舉行
例: Because I overslept, I missed the speech contest that took place this morning.
(因為睡過頭,我錯過了今早舉行的演講比賽。)


7. Interestingly enough, in today's world of cheerleading, actual chants are few and far between.
理由:
a. 句首為副詞 Interestingly(有趣地),得知空格應置入可作後位修飾的副詞加以修飾。
b. 選項中僅 (G) enough(足夠地)可置於形容詞或副詞之後作後位修飾,故為正選。
例: Oddly enough, he hasn't slept for three days, yet he doesn't feel tired at all.
(奇怪的是,他三天沒睡覺卻一點都不覺得累。)


8. Watching a well-trained cheerleading squad perform is quite mesmerizing.
理由:
a. 本空格測試知覺動詞的用法:
表『看』(watch, see, look at)、『聽』(hear, listen to)與『感覺』(feel)的知覺動詞加受詞後,可接原形動詞作受詞補語,以強調該動作;亦可接現在分詞,強調動作正在進行中。
b. 根據上述,由受詞 a well-trained cheerleading squad(訓練有素的啦啦隊)可知,本空格應選 (E) perform(表演)。


9. People are tossed up and fly through the air, while others do backflips below.
理由:
a. 空格前有 be 動詞 are,得知應置入現在分詞或過去分詞,以形成進行式或被動式。
b. 選項中僅剩 (J) tossed up(向上拋)為過去分詞,置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
c. be tossed up  被向上拋
toss up...  將……向上拋
例: We tossed up a coin to decide which team would get the ball first.
(我們丟硬幣決定哪一隊開球。)


10. ...one small mistake will force judges to deduct points, or even worse, lead to serious injury.
理由:
a. 由其後的比較級形容詞 worse 得知,本空格測試修飾比較級形容詞或副詞的詞類,計有下列六個:
far, much, even, still, a lot, a great deal。
例: I found a NT$100 bill. What's even better, I played the lottery with it and won NT$100,000.
(我撿到一張一百元紙鈔。更棒的是,我拿去買彩券,結果中了十萬元。)
b. 根據上述,故選 (A) even。


 
 



 
 



精解字詞片語









1. initiate vt. 創始;發起
例: Lee initiated this company trip. He always has great ideas.
(小李是這次員工旅遊的發起人,他總是有很多好點子。)


2. join in...  參與∕加入……
例: Don't join in the conversation if you don't have anything positive to say.
(如果你沒有什麼正面的想法要說,就別加入談話。)


3. be credited with...  對……有功
例: The waitress can be credited with saving the man's life because she performed CPR on him.
(那位女服務生為那名男子施行心肺復甦術,功不可沒。)


4. popularize vt. 使普及
例: The pop star popularized long fingernails covered with decorations and jewels.
(那位流行歌手使綴有裝飾品與珠寶的長指甲蔚為流行。)


5. few and far between  罕見的,稀少的
例: Nowadays, people like that brave young man are few and far between.
(像那位勇敢的年輕人之流現在少之又少。)


6. mesmerizing a. 使人著迷的
例: Her mesmerizing performance was greater than any of the other dancers.
(她令人著迷的演出比任何其他舞者都來得出色。)


7. deduct vt. 扣除,減除
例: The main drawback of this job is that NT$10 is deducted for every minute I'm late.
(這份工作的主要缺點就是每遲到一分鐘要扣十塊錢。)


8. emerge vi. 興起;出現
例: This area has emerged as a hangout for the young and trendy.
(這個地區已成為年輕人與時尚達人出沒的地方。)


 
 



 
 



單字小舖









1. chant vt.反覆而有節奏地)喊叫 & n. 吟
2.
encourage vt. 鼓舞;鼓勵
3. cheerleader n. 啦啦隊(隊員)
4. organized a. 有組織的
5. cheerleading n. 以啦啦隊的方式加油
6. founder n. 創立者
7. uniform n. 制服
8. pom-pom n. 啦啦隊用的綵球
9. trend n. 趨勢
10. competition n. 競賽
11. gymnastics n. 體操
12. toss n. & vt. 投擲
13. well-trained a. 訓練有素的
14. squad n. 小隊
15. backflip n. 後空翻
16. motivation n. 幹勁;動機
17. acrobatics n. 特技表演
18. sidelines n.(球場等的)界外地區,場外


 
 



 
 



片語小舖







1. a crowd of...  一群……

                                         2. lead to N/V-ing  導致……

  這一切始於 1880 年代,普林斯頓大學的美式足球賽上成群學生高喊『啦、啦、啦!老虎!老虎!老虎!呦、呦、呦!跰、跰、跰、啊!』事實上,啦啦隊這個詞在幾年後的 1898 年才開始使用,那時明尼蘇達大學的強尼‧坎貝爾率領一群學生有組織地加油叫喊。啦啦隊活動很快便蔚為流行。許多知名人士,如美國前總統羅斯福和艾森豪都參加過這好玩的活動。的確,剛開始的啦啦隊成員都是男性,女性實際上到了二十世紀中才開始正式參與啦啦隊。

  外號『Herkie』的勞倫斯‧何奇莫是國際啦啦隊協會的創辦人,在將啦啦隊轉變為現今的型態有莫大功勞。1948 年,他為 52 名對啦啦隊有興趣的年輕女性舉辦了一個營隊。他還設計了啦啦隊制服,並讓綵球的使用普及化。這股風潮在美國中學傳開,1978 年第一屆啦啦隊比賽正式舉行。如今全球有超過三百五十萬名啦啦隊成員。

  有趣的是,今日的啦啦隊很少唱歌。固定的招術包括跳舞、體操、疊金字塔和拋接。觀賞一場訓練有素的啦啦隊表演相當引人入勝。有人被拋向空中,另一些人則在下面後空翻。這需要很大的幹勁與努力。比賽期間,一個小差錯就可能逼得裁判不得不扣分,更糟的是,還可能造成重傷。隨著複雜的舞步和各種特技,啦啦隊已成為一種場外新興的專業運動。

標準答案:1. (F) 2. (H) 3. (B) 4. (I) 5. (D) 6. (C) 7. (G) 8. (E) 9. (J) 10. (A)


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